tramadol 50 mg appearance best dosage of xanax for sleep purchase phentermine canada adipex in athens ga france over the counter codeine adipex 37.5 for sale valium in china doctors in frederick md that prescribe phentermine phentermine prescription online doctor how long does zolpidem stay in your body tramadol 50 mg rijvaardigheid doctors who prescribe phentermine in baltimore md buy adipex from the uk cutting xanax xr in half highest safe dosage of tramadol best way to take klonopin bluelight over the counter codeine in massachusetts xanax pbs australia how long will codeine stay in your hair xanax da 1 mg a rilascio prolungato over counter codeine cough syrup virginia is it safe to mix percocet and ambien codeine in denmark klonopin stay in system can you get 10mg valium in australia klonopin for insomnia reviews tramadol 50 mg argentina tramadol hcl er 150 mg side effects can i split my phentermine in half doctors who prescribe adipex in st louis prices for tramadol is acetaminophen in ambien valium gocce costo street value of xanax canada price 2mg xanax ativan dosing in elderly adipex from uk brand name of alprazolam in india klonopin price per mg codeine overnight delivery adipex doctors in indianapolis indiana functional groups in ambien how much does a 10mg ambien cost valium in pregnancy can you get xanax in nicaragua buy phentermine okc how much tramadol can i take in one dose what medication is in ambien is tramadol detectable in drug tests cost of zolpidem without insurance at cvs buy phentermine.com buy codeine cough medicine tramadol und novaminsulfon zusammen price tylenol with codeine is klonopin safe while nursing reviews of ativan over the counter codeine pills canada best ambien dosage how strong is xanax .5 mg best way to flush xanax out of your system xanax compresse costo price of ambien on the street xanax gtt costo codeine phosphate in pregnancy phentermine 37.5 street price tramadol determination in plasma the side effects of tramadol hcl 50 mg ativan in ua best websites to buy xanax can you buy codeine in poland is tramadol an s8 drug in australia codeine black market prices half life of xanax 0.5 mg how long does xanax stay in a hair test codeine linctus online chemist adipex retard kaufen.at what is the best way to lose weight with phentermine generic brand name tramadol xanax charges in florida does xanax come in 5mg online apotek valium how long does prescription xanax stay in your system what drugs have tramadol in them cough syrup with promethazine and codeine brands phentermine in tallahassee fl does codeine come out in a drug test xanax gg 2 mg is it safe to take xanax and vicodin together phentermine where to buy in the uk how much xanax is safe for dog buy phentermine reviews online pharmacy for alprazolam can you buy xanax in cabo difference in lorazepam and xanax tramadol to buy in the uk can you snort generic klonopin calories in codeine cough syrup street price of tylenol 3 with codeine what is the cost of ultram buying tramadol from canada best way to do ambien ship valium to canada how much tramadol can a person take in one day how much xanax is safe for my dog zolpidem tartrate 10 mg tablet espanol tramadol retard medartuum 100 mg biverkningar bringing codeine back from canada uk xanax online tramadol arrow 50 mg cheap valium from china codeine brand name philippines generic xanax mg tramadol overnight delivery us pharmacy what is the cost of tramadol 50 mg codeine guaifenesin price tips for buying xanax online phentermine 37.5 to purchase phentermine uk delivery buy codeine tylenol canada is it safe to take ambien every night while pregnant alprazolam 0.5 mg benefits 20 mg valium vs 2mg xanax is tramadol a controlled drug in england where can i buy xanax pills online how long does 5mg of valium stay in your system how safe is tramadol during pregnancy buy phentermine cod fedex off brand xanax name tramadol mabo 50 mg how long does klonopin stay in your system for street price for bottle of promethazine codeine buy phentermine hydrochloride 37.5 mg online best way to get ativan out of your system what is phentermine called in mexico 60 mg of phentermine how long will tramadol show up in urine drug test prescription adipex online codeine over the counter virginia phentermine best way take xanax e derealizzazione xanax bars 2mg for sale best way to get high off tramadol buying phentermine on ebay when to take phentermine 30 mg order tramadol health solutions network new regulations for tramadol prescriptions how long xanax stay in your body images of generic ambien ativan use in pediatrics how much does ambien cr 12.5 cost actavis alprazolam reviews safe dose of valium for dogs ultram 50 mg drug classification where to buy cheap tramadol online cyclobenzaprine 10 mg and tramadol can you buy valium over the internet is it safe to take naproxen and ambien can ambien be sold over the counter how long does ativan show in your urine 5 mg xanax with alcohol ultram 50 mg vs ultracet can i buy zolpidem online tylenol with codeine 3 brand name side effects of tramadol er 200 mg costo valium is it safe to drink alcohol while taking xanax come usare xanax generic xanax canada how long does ativan stay in the body 150 mg tramadol per day xanax online satis over the counter alternative for tramadol can you legally buy phentermine online tramadol for osteosarcoma in dogs can i buy codeine in singapore dafalgan codeine prix belgique how to counteract codeine overdose i need real adipex white xanax bars 1 mg valium online bestellen is ambien safe with high blood pressure chlordiazepoxide 25 mg vs xanax generic name for ambien is it safe to take xanax and celexa together dog tramadol buy how many xanax can be taken in a day tramadol price in us how long is tramadol in your system xanax .25 mg for anxiety how long can you detect klonopin in urine is it safe to take valium and prilosec what is the best way to inject xanax can you buy valium vietnam what is the generic brand for ambien is it safe to take klonopin while pregnant best prices for ambien codeine 20 mg 300 mg codeine no effect where to buy cheap phentermine online codeine in hungary how to apply liquid xanax retail cost of ativan xanax usato come droga can you buy cough syrup with codeine how many mg of xanax to snort 5 or 10 mg valium anxiar online alprazolam legal australia 120 mg de codeine how much weight can i lose with phentermine in a month codeine 30 mg paracetamol 500mg tramadol in illinois comprar valium bogota what does 2mg generic xanax look like tramadol online with prescription xanax bars for cheap use of valium in dentistry xanax 1 mg costo xanax .5mg reviews buy valium thailand ic phentermine 37.5 mg tablet how long will 6 mg of xanax stay in your system phentermine 37.5 user reviews does it work is codeine safe to take in pregnancy imigran 50 price side effects of tramadol 50 mg tablets tramadol hydrochloride 50 mg strength buy zolpidem tartrate canada tramadol 50 mg for canines codeine phosphate 15 mg over the counter where to buy phentermine in houston tx buy valium mastercard is codeine safe in early pregnancy alprazolam in chronic kidney disease is all generic ambien the same xanax generic difference prometh codeine syrup buy phentermine lowest price xanax cash price 45 mg codeine high prometh with codeine canada valium for social anxiety disorder ambien dosage in elderly how long does xanax xr stay in your system round white generic xanax is it safe to mix valium and seroquel street price tylenol 3 with codeine wo kann man adipex bestellen dosage ambien cr 12.5 mg what is the difference in ultram and tramadol cheap tramadol cod overnight tramadol kaufen xanax pret in farmacii does phentermine show up in a blood test buy zolpidem thailand how much codeine is in guiatuss ac syrup canadian pharmacy xanax trusted online pharmacy tramadol is tramadol 50 mg good for toothache india pharmacy adipex fiorinal codeine 3 prices how much opiates in tramadol tramadol lp 100 mg posologie how long does it take for valium to work in dogs phentermine black market phentermine kick in time generic medication for tramadol how long will codeine stay in your blood codeine is in what drugs is tramadol safe to take before surgery tramadol causa sono klonopin without insurance cost doctors in ny that prescribe phentermine can i buy codeine in spain zolpidem sales valium 5mg online uk tramadol hcl 50 mg is a narcotic best way to wean yourself off xanax pink xanax how many mg ativan sleeping pills in pakistan what to do in tramadol overdose methocarbamol codeine canada blue valium mg possession of xanax in nj how long is tramadol active in your body is adipex over the counter tramadol 300 mg withdrawal is it safe to take tramadol and ritalin how long adipex stays in your system best way to take 1mg ativan ultram 50 mg pill real phentermine pills alprazolam s8 south australia what are street prices for xanax tramadol ringing in ears liquid acetaminophen with codeine how long safe to take ambien does phentermine come in a capsule how many milligrams in tylenol 3 with codeine is it safe to take tylenol with adipex street prices for 10mg valium what will codeine test positive for in a drug test ambien in dubai tramadol dosage in pediatrics phentermine diet visalia ca xanax 0.5 mg forum codeine phosphate tablets online buy ambien online in uk cost for generic xanax 10mg xanax street price weight loss with phentermine 15 mg valium last in system tylenol with codeine 3 300 30 mg what is the best generic brand of klonopin tramadol dogs dosage 50 mg how much acetaminophen is in codeine 4 how much is 120 mg of codeine worth how many mg peach xanax promethazine codeine prescription online best way to get high with xanax what over the counter drug is like adipex lo xanax in gravidanza phentermine 15 mg capsule ativan 2 mg obat apa promethazine codeine in system can you take 2 tramadol 50 mg at one time k?p tramadol online ativan tablets buy zolpidem schedule australia how much codeine is in a ounce of syrup ativan 1 mg purpose how much does xanax cost to produce over the counter pills with codeine how long does ambien stay in your system urine best phentermine dose what is in fioricet with codeine how much codeine in phenergan with codeine phentermine 37.5 generic adipex buy xanax las vegas buy cheap generic ativan yellow phentermine 30 mg capsules over the counter codeine phosphate tramadol otc in germany how much tramadol can you take in a day ultram coupon discount adipex generic side effects diet pills phentermine buy online xanax blue pill cost online xanax prescription how long does a half xanax stay in your system tramadol stada 100 ml phentermine diet pill review tramadol in hepatic failure diazepam mg walgreens price for phentermine tramadol 50 mg and flexeril clorazepate 7.5 mg vs xanax best way to take ativan to get high generic forms of adipex can you buy valium in pattaya ratio codeine 25 mg codeine 30 mg erowid tramadol 50mg tablets brand name generic xanax mylan a1 xanax manufacturer usa cost of acetaminophen with codeine can ativan build up in your system generic vs brand klonopin obat alprazolam 0.5 mg tramadol shipped to all 50 states took 6 mg ativan injecting liquid valium does codeine cough syrup have tylenol in it ambien 10 mg lasts is it safe to give dogs xanax is it safe to take valium with high blood pressure how many 0.5 mg xanax to get high cough syrup codeine uk xanax three days in a row codeine cough syrup in india valium in espanol is codeine available over the counter in spain zolpidem bestellen ohne rezept tramadol clorhidrato 325 mg para que sirve tramadol capsulas 50 mg klonopin generic pill identifier how long does street valium stay in your system doctors who prescribe adipex in detroit zolpidem tartrate oral tablet 5 mg is it safe to take tramadol and prozac together tramadol online fast suboxone and xanax safe xanax 1 mg blue footballs zolpidem hexal 10 mg pris buy alprazolam wholesale phentermine white blue 37.5 mg can you buy codeine in dubai sospensione improvvisa xanax safe to mix xanax and ambien cost of phentermine and topiramate how often should you take tramadol 50 mg 0.25 mg xanax high klonopin 1 mg efectos secundarios does calpol have codeine in it buy brand name phentermine online tramadol 50 mg half life xanax over the counter india promethazine codeine stay in system how much mg of valium to get high ativan price cough syrup with codeine sold in canada ambien sleeping pill uk bringing valium back to australia xanax left in heat what is the difference in lorazepam and xanax phentermine clinics in houston tx is 40mg of valium safe generic xanax 106 s how much ambien safe to take best way to take a 5mg valium difference between generic and brand ambien tramadol overdose symptoms uk is 25 mg of ambien dangerous tramadol 50 mg cada 8 horas can you get in trouble for ordering tramadol online tramadol to treat arthritis in dogs is there codeine in tramadol hcl 50 mg what mg are green xanax footballs peach klonopin generic effects of xanax in elderly what does 5 mg ambien look like alprazolam 0 5 mg vademecum buy klonopin canada adipex doctors in indianapolis codeine online bestellen adipex coupon discount what brand of phentermine is best does xanax show up in a pee test buy zolpidem online overnight uk xanax .5mg price zolpidem safety alert order phentermine adipex online is valium an over the counter drug discount pet meds tramadol codeine linctus free delivery ambien retail cost order real adipex online tylenol 3 with codeine in drug test 60mg codeine safe ambien side effects 10 mg is it safe to take tramadol with warfarin is tramadol safe for pregnant what pain relievers have codeine in them how to test if valium is real buy ambien online from canada tramadol for pets online uk generic xanax price without insurance tramadol hcl 50 mg efectos secundarios how long does a half a xanax stay in your system is tramadol illegal to possess in california is it safe to take tylenol 3 and ativan alprazolam in system how long cheap valium bulk 60 mg codeine equals how much oxycodone buy phentermine hydrochloride 37.5 best generic klonopin qualitest street price of .25 mg xanax purchase adipex from an online pharmacy how long does xanax show in urine paracetamol met codeine online kopen tramadol otc in germany safe dose of valium tramadol in third trimester of pregnancy .50 mg xanax a day which cough syrup has codeine in canada cost of tramadol at walgreens tramadol acetaminophen 50 mg where can i buy phentermine in south africa buy phentermine 30 mg yellow capsules phentermine weight loss pills buy klonopin for rem behavior disorder valium for sleep reviews will tramadol show up in a hair follicle drug test doctors who prescribe phentermine in irving tx 20 mg of alprazolam buy codeine in us phentermine hydrochloride 37.5 for sale street price ativan where to buy ambien in singapore ativan generics how many valium can i take in a day long does ultram stay in your system what mg are purple xanax codeine phosphate 60 mg and alcohol ounce of codeine syrup cost what is in phentermine tablets is adipex legal in ohio valium online spain promethazine with codeine cough syrup over the counter will 8 mg of ativan kill you What is media literacy? - The Association For Media Literacy

What is media literacy?

AML Logo

The Association for Media Literacy

Media literacy is the knowledge and skills necessary to understand and use the codes and conventions of a wide variety of media forms and genres appropriately, effectively and ethically. Media literacy educators worldwide use frameworks of varying form and sophistication to scaffold student learning. Below is a collection of the Eight Key Concepts of Media Literacy that can be used to support the understanding and use of media. Each is accompanied by a brief discussion and questions that might help teachers operationalize the statements for student discussion.Note: These Key Concepts of Media Literacy are neither finite nor immutable. In fact, a current AML initiative is the re-examination and potential revision of these statements to support teachers in evolving media environments.

Key Concepts of Media Literacy

1. Media texts construct reality. 

Concept #1 focuses on how media messages are subsets of real experiences that are made to seem like accurate representations of life.  E.g., photographs are realistic, representing objects seen from distance, angle and perspective, but are subsets of reality because they are not three-dimensional and do not move.

Questions to support understanding this concept:

How do the codes and conventions used in this text help to convince its audience that it is representing reality?
Who is represented in this text; what kinds of people? Who is omitted? How might the omissions be significant?
What situations or events are represented? What situations or events might be conspicuous by their absence?
Are the representations accurate or valid?  If not, what modifications might make them accurate or valid?
If you could give the producer of this text some advice about how to improve it, what would it be?
If you could ask the producer a question about this text, what would it be?

2. Media texts construct versions of reality.

Concept #2 means that each message is biased in two ways: reflecting the biases of its medium and of its creator.  A bias of a medium might be a photograph’s reduction of three to two dimensions and its freezing of one moment in time.  A bias of a creator might be a photographer’s decision to omit an element from a photo or to photograph it from a high or low angle.  These biases combine to influence the ways an audience will make meaning from the text.

Questions to support understanding this concept:

What medium/media of communication is/are involved in the construction of this text?  (Often more than one are occurring in harmony.)
Of what other media texts does this text remind me?
What is the name for this type of media text? or To what category might it belong? (form, genre)
What are the biases of this medium?
What are the biases of this media form?
How might those biases be influencing the meaning(s) people make?

3. Audiences negotiate meaning.

Concept 3. acknowledges the audience’s role in the meaning-making process.  Prior knowledge of form and content are critical in the meaning-making process.  Activating content prior knowledge is important because it will facilitate new information being synthesized with existing information. Activating form prior knowledge is equally important because it will optimize a consumer’s ability to glean information from the text.
Because each audience member is unique in prior knowledge and life experiences, each member negotiates a unique meaning from a text.  No two people see the same movie, read the same message, hear the same podcast, visit the same website.  Some scholars suggest that media consumers actually edit their own experiences through selection, attention, time and reflection.  This concept is especially important for teachers because they must consider how their and their students’ life experiences, textual competency and intellectual maturity produce different meanings from the same texts.  This is why it is so important for teachers to assess—by asking—what meanings students are making and how they are making them.  Students’ responses will provide teachers with the information they need to choose and use teaching strategies appropriately.

Questions to support understanding this concept:
Is this text appealing? To whom? 
To whom might it NOT be appealing? Why?
Which elements are used to engage/attract the audience (colour, visuals, sound, word choice, celebrities, etc.)?
What assumptions does this text make about its audience?
What is my interpretation of the meaning of this text?
Who might interpret it similarly/differently? Why?
Does this text “speak” to me? Do I like what it’s saying? Why?

4. Media messages have economic implications.

Concept #4 acknowledges that most media messages are created by media industries to make a profit.   This concept was truer when it was written (pre-digital technology) than it is now because powerful and affordable digital technologies have provided artists who produce compelling low-budget texts for niche audiences and the WWW has provided new methods and platforms for self-expression.
Ironically, ownership of media production has simultaneously become both concentrated and diluted.  Commercial production has continued to concentrate to the point where only six corporations own ALL the large-scale commercial production and distribution.  As ownership has concentrated, thousands of amateur and small-scale media producers have also emerged to provide alternative voices and access points.  So the more the big guys have grown and trumpeted mainstream voices, the more the little guys have emerged to fill the voids.  The little producers have now become so prolific and successful that the six corporations are losing audience share.
It is important for teachers to acknowledge that while many media texts are produced by a profit-making industry, more and more are produced just for the pleasure of making and sharing them with a small community.  (Andy Warhol is quoted as saying, ‘Everyone will be famous for 15 minutes.’  In the WWW age, the quote has been modified to ‘Everyone is famous to 15 people.’)
The gradual democratization of media production technologies has also had a significant impact on the home and the workplace, and therefore on the education that prepares students for their home and working lives.  Where once students might have learned media production in order to enter a  media industry, they now must learn media production to succeed in almost any job and to enrich their personal lives.  Media production is fast becoming a standard part of many jobs: insurance adjusters must know how to take high-quality photos of damage, then transmit those photos, with their interpretations, to the appropriate agencies; sales people must know how to create effective multi-media presentations to complement their sales meetings and client relations; even funeral directors have to know how to scan old photos, edit them, sequence them, and select and add music to them, then record them to disk or USB drive to produce multi-media presentations that are shown during funeral services, then distributed to family members afterwards.  The important idea in these examples is that the term ‘media industry’ is changing and broadening to become a crucial aspect of more and more jobs and personal lives.

Questions to support understanding this concept:

Who benefits economically from the production of this text? How?
Who might be negatively affected economically by this text? How?
How was the production of this text paid for?/Who funded the production of this text?
How do the funders make a profit from this text?
If the funders DON’T make a profit, what DO they get from the audience’s consumption of this text?
What do consumers pay to consume this text?
If consumers DON’T pay any money to consume this text, what might they sacrifice (time)?
If this text contains NO commercial implications, why was it created? (pleasure)

5. Media texts communicate values messages.

Concepts #5 and #6 are becoming increasingly important as the rate of change accelerates. Concept  #5 helps students consider that media messages inevitably communicate values messages that extend into the lives of their audiences.  Audiences need to be able to recognize and assess these values messages.  This statement connects with the notion of creator bias described in concept #2.
Dominant and subordinate social groups have become aware of the values that texts communicate.  This is evidenced by the creation of and loyalty to TV networks and websites that serve subordinate social groups.  Immigrant, Native, female and Trans-gendered, Gay, Lesbian and Bi-sexual communities have all sought opportunities for self-expression and assertion of their values through media texts and media communities.

Questions to support understanding this concept:
Whose values are represented?
Whose values are NOT represented?
Does the text misrepresent any values?
Are my values/beliefs represented?
Are my friends’ values represented?

6. Media texts communicate political and social messages.

Concept  #6 helps students understand that because media messages are shared, discussed and sometimes emulated, they need to be explored within a sociopolitical context to assess how they are influencing—or are influenced by—consumers.  Political parties are utilizing social networking and other web resources extensively.  Marketers are pursuing potential customers ever more persistently.  People are often making buying and life decisions within virtual social contexts rather than through face-to-face contacts. It is possible to shop online for books, movies, appliances, airline tickets etc. and to not only see the ratings provided by commercial ratings services, but also ratings provided by other consumers.  This means that consumers can make purchasing, and possibly voting, decisions in a social environment comprised of people they have never met, nor will ever meet, yet with whom they are (temporarily) working towards common goals.
Cyber-bullying is an ongoing preoccupation in many quarters.  Each of these issues can be informed using this key concept.

Questions to support understanding this concept:

What assumptions does the producer make about the audience? (gender, race, class, interests)
Who benefits from the production of this text? How?
Who might be negatively affected by this text? How?
What is this text’s political point of view?
How might this text influence its audience’s political point of view?

7. Form and content are closely related in each medium.

Concept #7 is particularly important in the production of media texts because it refers to the fact that the unique codes and conventions of each medium influence—and are influenced by—the content of the messages.  It is also an important concept because it acknowledges the unique language of each medium.  This concept will be expanded upon in the Reading Media chapter.

Questions to support understanding this concept:

What media form is this?
What media genre is this?
How do the form and genre shape the content of the text?
How does the content influence the characteristics of the form?

8. Each medium has a unique aesthetic form.

Concept #8 acknowledges the pleasures that media texts provide, either through their entertainment value or their effectiveness.  This concept acknowledges that each medium not only has a unique set of codes and conventions (as stated by key concept #2), but that there is an aesthetic involved in their appropriate and pleasurable uses.  It may be easier to consider aesthetics in media forms or texts that are purposefully artistic or entertaining: music, movies, TV shows.  It is important, however, to help students understand and appreciate the aesthetics that might occur in news reports, advertisements, blogs and podcasts.  There can even be aesthetic qualities in their own assignments.
It is unfortunate that this is the last concept, because it is not the least important, though readers might infer so from its position.  Being, last, it also is vulnerable to neglect or omission when time constraints occur.  Teachers might choose to begin with this key concept, as it invites students to discover and share their own pleasures—a good place to start for affective reasons—and aesthetics can implicate all the other key concepts.

Questions to support understanding this concept:
What set of codes and conventions combine to communicate the aethestics of this text?
What makes this a pleasurable text?